After 150 years, the periodic table contains more stories than elements

His organization contains stories of discoveries and strange reactions

Do you recognize these rows and columns? You may remember a detail or two about setting up a powerful table from a chemistry class in the past. Elements are classified according to their number of protons or their atomic number. Metals are mostly on the left and not metals on the right. The right side of the column contains noble gases, named for their general reluctance to interact with other elements.

When Dmitrii Mendeleev proposed his periodic table 150 years ago, no one knew what was in an atom. We now know that an element’s place in the array, as well as its chemical properties, has a lot to do with the element’s proton count and the arrangement of its electrons.

At a glance you can see the elements that make up all of nature
Directory of chemicals and how these elements relate to each other. However, the elements are also individuals with unique scientific characteristics and nuanced discovery stories. You can find some of our favorites on these pages.

And the painting is still in progress. It wasn’t until 2016 that the four elements were named. Cross-border research efforts and scientific puzzles will remain.

Banana Bonanza

potassium

Bananas are high in potassium 40, a radioactive version of potassium. In a single banana, potassium 40 produces a positron, the antimatter version of the electron, about a dozen times per day and an electron about 13 times per second.

Who belongs

Lutetium, Lawrencium, Lanthanum, Actinium

Not everyone is convinced that the lutetium and lawrencium are among the prominent positions presented here. The Royal Society of Chemistry instead places lanthanum and actinium in the upper boxes, prioritizing external electrons and adding lutetium and lawrencium at the end of the f block. The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry, responsible for the naming of chemicals, has been discussing the issue of placement since 2015.

Out of the lab

uranium

When French physicist Henri Becquerel placed uranium salts on photographic plates in 1896, he accidentally discovered radioactivity, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. Uranium was the last element on the table . which occurs in nature in large quantities ;; The rest must be done in the laboratory.

Special luster

gold

Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity explains the color of gold. Due to the transfer of electronic energy levels due to the theory of relative, metal absorbs blue light and gives reflected light a yellow color.

Campsite clues

Mercury

When Meriwether Lewis and William Clark headed to the Pacific, they were carrying 1,300 doses of a mercury-based laxative known as Rush’s Thunderbolts. Nearly two centuries later, in Grandfather’s country, at Mt., Mercury discovered experts at the location of one of the explorer camps.

Predictive power

gallium

Mendeleev left gaps in his initial periodic table so he could properly align the known elements. Gallium, element 31, was the first vacuum, filled in 1875. The star of a popular chemical trick, metallic gallium, was solid at room temperature, but liquid above 29.7 ° Celsius. It can be shaped into a spoon that melts in your hand or a hot tea.

Out there

helium

Helium was discovered in 1868, nearly three decades before the element was discovered on Earth, as a light yellow line in a light spectrum from the sun. Last year, scientists reported the first discovery of helium in the atmosphere of an exoplanet.

Three of a kind

Chlorine, bromine, iodine

Chlorine, bromine and iodine constitute what the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner called the “triad”. The atomic weight of bromine 79.90 is between chlorine (35.45) and iodine (126.90) and they all easily react with metals to form salts. Döbereiner recognized such connections in 1817, more than half a century before Mendeleev offered his table.

The end?

Oganesson

Oganesson today marks the end of the periodic table and closes the rare gas column. However, he is not as far away as the others in his group. The element easily surrounds or captures electrons, and its atoms can cluster together – although according to theoretical predictions. Some atoms of oganesson produced by chemists survive less than a millisecond. Scientists continue to break down atoms in the lab looking for more than 118 elements.

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